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Purpose of Protein Synthesis 

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Proteins are biological molecules formed in the cells of the body and make up 20% of the human body. They contain amino acids as the basic unit; the mammalian body system contains 22 amino acids, and each amino acid sequence results in a protein molecule with unique characteristics. 

These properties allow various protein sets to function as hormones, enzymes, structural proteins (collagen and keratin), transport molecules (hemoglobin), and motor molecules (myosin). Therefore, proteins play an important role in maintaining bodily functions. 

However, proteins also perform numerous functions outside the body, necessitating the need for in vitro. The following are the main reasons why protein synthesis is necessary. 

What is Protein Synthesis 

Protein synthesis entails linking multiple amino acids to form peptide chains that form protein molecules. It occurs in the cytoplasm or ribosomes, and the cell organelles responsible for protein synthesis arrange the amino acids according to the genetic code provided by the DNA. Besides the amino acid sequence, the DNA sequence also dictates how the protein molecule folds; the folding process gives the protein its functional shape.  

However, advances in biotechnology have led to the development of new protein applications within and outside the body. Therefore, recombinant protein production services are necessary to meet the demand for new-age protein applications.  

Like endogenous protein production, recombinant protein production is a two-step process featuring transcription and translation steps. However, it occurs in vitro in protein expression systems via a cloning vector introduced into the system.  Recombinant protein synthesis has several advantages over endogenous protein production. 

First, recombinant protein production facilitates scalability, allowing service providers to develop a high volume of specific proteins for large-scale projects. Second, it facilitates the creation of novel proteins by modifying the gene sequence. The modifications in recombinant protein production also facilitate the production of more stable protein molecules.   

Also, recombinant proteins are cheaper to produce within a shorter period while maintaining product quality consistency. Therefore, below is an overview of the role protein synthesis, particularly recombinant protein production, plays within and beyond the biotechnological field. 

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Protein Nanoparticles Synthesis For Drug Delivery 

Nanomedicine is among the most significant concepts in drug discovery and development. It utilizes biocompatible polymers to transfer the drug to the site of action, enhancing its bioavailability and other characteristics that facilitate healing and other disease management therapies. 

Protein particles are emerging as the most effective biocompatible polymers for the following reasons. First, their small size and increased surface area increase the drug reactivity surface, translating to increased drug cellular uptake, regardless of the drug’s administration method. Second, unlike other nanoparticles, protein nanoparticles are highly biodegradable, breaking down into non-toxic substances, including water.  

Third, recombinant protein synthesis facilitates protein gene sequence and backbone modifications, enhancing the drug’s stability. Fourth, protein nanoparticles are amphiphilic (demonstrate hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties), facilitating effective transport regardless of the targeted cell tissue’s properties.  

Endogenous protein molecules are too large for effective use in nanomedicine. Therefore, recombinant protein nanoparticle synthesis plays a significant role in various target therapies, including cancerous tumor therapy.  

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Protein Subunit Vaccine Production 

Protein subunit vaccines are similar to the protein nanoparticles discussed above. However, the primary difference between the two is that subunit vaccines primarily feature antibody fragments. 

Antibodies are a class of proteins that help protect the body from disease by attacking and subduing disease-causing pathogens or antigens. Antibody production occurs in white blood cells’ B-cell lining in response to specific antigens. Therefore, the distinguishing factor between antibodies and other proteins is their antigen specificity, characterized by a lock-and-key mechanism. 

Essentially, antibody production entails vaccinating an animal host with a specific antigen and harvesting the resultant antibodies from the host’s serum. However, recombinant protein synthesis enables the production and use of vaccine fragments for immunization rather than the entire antibody. 

The primary advantage of subunit vaccines is that they are significantly safer than live vaccines because they present toxicity to the host animal and aggressive human reactions. Second, they are safer for immunocompromised parties, including individuals suffering from chronic illnesses.  

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Cosmetic Products And Dietary Supplements 

Although protein synthesis primarily focuses on biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry, it has applications outside the biotech space. First, proteins are macronutrients consumed via diet to facilitate and maintain numerous body functions. Therefore, the role that proteins play inside the body influences how humans look on the outside. 

For starters, structural proteins like collagen, elastin, and keratin are responsible for healthy, youthful skin and hair. Therefore, experts in the cosmetic industry add recombinant proteins in their formulations to improve skin and hair health. Besides the cosmetic element, the development of the recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) accelerates wound healing, especially for skin ulcers resulting from diabetes and other chronic conditions. 

Also, regarding dietary supplements, some individuals may need to meet the daily protein recommended dietary intake due to dietary restrictions and food aversions. Such individuals can supplement their protein intake using protein powders and other products made from recombinant proteins. Another protein synthesis food application is the manufacturing of probiotics as dietary supplements and recombinant protein food preservatives.  


Proteins serve multiple functions in medical research and numerous industrial applications. Therefore, protein synthesis is a crucial concept, helping to meet the demand for high-quality, standardized protein products. 

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